range of Copper is 10 to 30 micrograms per 24 hours
result means you have a higher than normal level of copper. This may
be due to:
-Chronic active hepatitis
RDW (red blood cell distribution width ) values indicate greater
variation in size.
RDW reference range in human red blood cells is 1115%
deficiency anemia initially presents with a varied size distribution
of red blood cells, and as such shows an increased RDW.
case of a mixed iron and B12 deficiency, there will normally be a
mix of both large cells and small cells, causing the RDW to be elevated.
An elevated RDW (red blood cells of unequal sizes) is known as anisocytosis
sedimentation rate (ESR), also called a sedimentation rate or Westergren
ESR, is the rate at which red blood cells sediment in a period
of 1 hour. It is a common hematology test, and is a non-specific measure
ranges from a large 1996 study of 3,910 healthy adults:
-- 5% exceed
high ESR usually has an obvious cause, such as a marked increase in
globulins that can be due to a severe infection. The doctor will use
other follow-up tests, such as blood cultures, depending on the patient's
symptoms. People with multiple myeloma or Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia
(tumors that make large amounts of immunoglobulins) typically have
very high ESRs even if they don't have inflammation
range 3.5 to 5.3 g/dL
is a protein made specifically by the liver, and can be measured cheaply
and easily. It is the main constituent of total protein; the remaining
froglobulins). Albumin levels are decreased in chronic liver disease,
such as cirrhosis. It is also decreased in nephrotic syndrome, where
it is lost through the urine.
globulin ratio or A/G ratio
lab range: 1.1 - 2.5
A/G ratio reflects overproduction of globulins, due to chronic infections.
normal lab range: 4-60 u/l
test measures the amount of an enzyme called angiotensin-converting
enzyme in blood. It is used to evaluate diseases such as sarcoidosis,
suspected leprosy, or suspected Gaucher's disease.
diagnostic setting, if ACE levels are high, other diseases have been
ruled out, and a person has clinical findings consistent with sarcoidosis,
then it is likely that the person has an active case of sarcoidosis.
The finding of a high ACE level helps to confirm the diagnosis.
and low levels of ACE may be seen in a variety of conditions other
than sarcoidosis. The ACE test, however, is not routinely used to
diagnose or monitor these conditions (it has not been shown to be
levels in blood test results will tell the physician what the level
of bicarbonates is within the blood.
range is 23-29 mEq/L (milliequivalent per liter).
levels may be due to:
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