you very much for your question.
ventricular hypertrophy usually develops gradually. You may experience
no signs or symptoms, especially during the early stages of the condition.
As left ventricular hypertrophy progresses and complications develop,
you may experience these left ventricular hypertrophy symptoms:
Chest pain, often after exercising
Sensation of rapid, fluttering or pounding heartbeats (palpitations)
Dizziness or fainting
The enlargement is not permanent in all cases, and in some cases the
growth can regress with the reduction of blood pressure and controlling
be a factor in determining treatment or diagnosis for other conditions,
because for example, it causes a patient to have an irregular ECG.
Patients with LVH may have to participate in more complicated and
precise diagnostic procedures, such as imaging, in situations where
otherwise a doctor could give advice based on an ECG.
for left ventricular hypertrophy focuses on the underlying cause of
the condition. Depending on the cause, treatment may involve medication
high blood pressure
for high blood pressure usually includes both medications and lifestyle
changes, such as regular exercise; a low-sodium, low-fat diet; and
to lowering blood pressure, some high blood pressure drugs may prevent
further enlargement of left ventricle muscle tissue and may even shrink
your hypertrophic muscles. Blood pressure drugs that may reverse muscle
growth include the following:
enzyme (ACE) inhibitors widen, or dilate, blood vessels to lower blood
pressure, improve blood flow and decrease the workload on the heart.
Examples include enalapril (Vasotec), lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril)
and captopril (Capoten).
inhibitors cause an irritating cough in some people. It may be best
to put up with the cough, if you can, to gain the medication's benefits.
Discuss this side effect with your doctor. Switching to another ACE
inhibitor or an angiotensin II receptor blocker may help.
II receptor blockers (ARBs), which include losartan (Cozaar) and valsartan
(Diovan), have many of the beneficial effects of ACE inhibitors, but
they don't cause a persistent cough. They may be an alternative for
people who can't tolerate ACE inhibitors.
diuretics act on your kidneys to help your body eliminate sodium and
water, thereby reducing blood volume.
blockers slow your heart rate, reduce blood pressure and prevent some
of the harmful effects of stress hormones. These drugs include atenolol
(Tenormin), carvedilol (Coreg), metoprolol (Toprol XL) and bisoprolol
channel blockers prevent calcium from entering cells of the heart
and blood vessel walls. This lowers blood pressure. These drugs include
amlodipine (Norvasc), diltiazem (Cardizem, Dilacor XR, Tiazac), nifedipine
(Procardia) and verapamil (Calan, Verelan, Covera-HS).
already been diagnosed with sleep apnea, treating this sleep disorder
can help shrink left ventricular hypertrophy. If you haven't been
diagnosed with sleep apnea, but your partner tells you that you snore
or that you stop breathing momentarily while you sleep, talk with
your doctor about getting tested for sleep apnea. Treatment for sleep
apnea involves using a machine that provides continuous positive airway
pressure (CPAP) while you sleep. This keeps your airways open, allowing
you to get the oxygen you need to keep your blood pressure at a normal
valve repair or replacement
ventricular hypertrophy is caused by aortic valve stenosis, you may
have surgery to remove the narrow valve and replace it with either
an artificial valve or a tissue valve from a pig, cow or deceased
human donor. If you have aortic valve regurgitation, the leaky valve
may be surgically repaired or replaced.
they are not a treatment specifically for left ventricular hypertrophy,
the cholesterol-lowering medications known as statins may help treat
left ventricular hypertrophy. Clinical trials are currently being
done to see if statins are a useful treatment for this disorder.
with a mildly enlarged heart may not have symptoms.
of an enlarged heart may include:
Loss of appetite
Fatigue during exercise
Urinating more often at night
Worse with exercise
Shortness of breath when lying flat
Shortness of breath with exercise
Waking at night with shortness of breath
Leg swelling (bilateral):
Ankle swelling (bilateral)
Foot swelling (bilateral)
for an enlarged heart depends on the underlying cause. Treatment for
an enlarged heart may include stop smoking, heart diet, low cholesterol
diet, low salt diet, an exercise plan, weight reduction, and fluid
restriction. Medications to treat an enlarged heart may include diuretics,
beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, aspirin, and potassium supplements.
for an enlarged heart may include:
Avoid exposure to secondary smoke.
Eat a healthy heart diet:
Low cholesterol diet
Low fat diet
Low salt diet
As directed by your doctor
Elastic support stockings
Follow an exercise plan developed with your doctor.
Control of high blood pressure:
ACE inhibitor medication
important to follow a healthy diet if you have cardiac enlargement.
fad diets: a well-rounded diet is much better.
Limited fat intake to no more than 30% of total calories:
Some experts recommend no more than 20-25% fat.
Eating high-quality fats:
Using virgin olive oil and other unsaturated, low-cholesterol fats.
10% to 15% of total calories should be in the form of monounsaturated
fatty acids (e.g. olive oil, canola oil, and peanut oil).
Eating less than 300 milligrams of dietary cholesterol a day.
Eating plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables.
Limited iron intake: too much iron can increase atherosclerosis.
Replacing animal protein with soy.
Reducing salt to no more than 3 grams per day. A doctor may lower
this recommendation to no more than 2 grams for people with high blood
pressure or congestive heart failure.
Emphasizing complex carbohydrates, such as starch and fiber. Whole
grains and brown rice are good fiber sources. Other sources include:
of mitral regurgitation which is also known as mitral insufficiency,
on the acuteness of the disease and whether there are associated signs
of hemodynamic compromise.
mitral regurgitation secondary to a mechanical defect in the heart
(i.e. rupture of a papillary muscle or chordae tendineae), the treatment
of choice is urgent mitral valve replacement. If the patient is hypotensive
prior to the surgical procedure, an intra-aortic balloon pump may
be placed in order to improve perfusion of the organs and to decrease
the degree of mitral regurgitation.
individual with acute mitral regurgitation is normotensive, vasodilators
may be of use to decrease the afterload seen by the left ventricle
and thereby decrease the regurgitant fraction. The vasodilator most
commonly used is nitroprusside.
with chronic mitral regurgitation can be treated with vasodilators
as well to decrease afterload. In the chronic state, the most commonly
used agents are ACE inhibitors and hydralazine. Studies have shown
that the use of ACE inhibitors and hydralazine can delay surgical
treatment of mitral regurgitation. The current guidelines for treatment
of mitral regurgitation limit the use of vasodilators to individuals
with hypertension, however. Any hypertension is treated aggressively,
e.g. by diuretics and a low sodium diet. In both hypertensive and
normotensive cases, digoxin and antiarrhythmics are also indicated.
Also, chronic anticoagulation is given where there is concomitant
mitral valve prolapse or atrial fibrillation.
are two surgical options for the treatment of mitral regurgitation:
mitral valve replacement and mitral valve repair. In the double orifice
technique for mitral valve repair, the opening of the mitral valve
is sewn closed in the middle, leaving the two ends still able to open.
This ensures that the mitral valve closes when the left ventricle
pumps blood, yet allows the mitral valve to open at the two ends to
fill the left ventricle with blood before it pumps. The same idea
can be used with a minimally-invasive catheter technique which installs
a clip to hold the middle of the mitral valve closed.
is also a non-surgical option for the treatment of mitral regurgitation.
Mitral-valve repair can be accomplished with an investigational procedure
that involves the percutaeneous implantation of a clip that grips
and approximates the edges of the mitral leaflets at the origin of
the regurgitant jet. Though it is less effective at reducing mitral
regurgitation than conventional surgery, the procedure is marked by
superior safety and similar improvements.
for surgery for chronic mitral regurgitation include signs of left
and symptoms of mitral valve regurgitation depend on its severity
and how quickly the condition develops. Mitral valve regurgitation
signs and symptoms can include:
flowing turbulently through your heart (heart murmur)
Shortness of breath, especially with exertion or when you lie down
Fatigue, especially during times of increased activity
Cough, especially at night or when lying down
Heart palpitations - sensations of a rapid, fluttering heartbeat
Swollen feet or ankles
valve regurgitation is often mild and progresses slowly. You may have
no symptoms for decades and be unaware that you have this condition.
valve regurgitation is often first suspected when your doctor hears
a heart murmur. Sometimes, however, the problem develops quickly,
and you may experience a sudden onset of severe signs and symptoms.
cases of Pulmonic regurgitation usually do not cause any symptoms.
Because pulmonic regurgitation is the result of other factors in the
body, any noticeable symptoms are ultimately caused by an underlying
medical condition rather than the regurgitation itself. However, more
severe regurgitation may contribute to right ventricular hypertrophy,
and in later stages, right heart failure.
murmur can sometimes be identified early in diastole, heard best over
the left lower sternal border
cases do not require treatment.
regurgitation is generally treated by addressing the underlying condition.
In certain cases, the pulmonary valve may be surgically replaced.
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