Question: My husband has a
high PSA reading. They did the test and the Dr called to say it does
not show cancer but it could be some long three word phrase that shortens
to PIN. We have no idea what this is and of course are very concerned
from lack of knowledge. He will have the test again in 4 - 6 weeks.
Can you help to explain what this could mean. The Dr. said it is something
that could turn to cancer. Thank you so much for any information you
can provide. Joan
Answer: Dear Joan,
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
is a protein created by cells of the prostate gland. The test measures
the levels of PSA in the blood. Prostate cancer or benign conditions
can increase the levels of PSA. Benign conditions of the prostate
include inflammation of the prostate and enlargement of the prostate.
Conditions such as inflammation
and enlargement of the prostate can develop into cancer but it does
not mean it will lead to it. PSA levels cannot diagnose by themselves
prostate cancer but may indicate to a doctor to check for other signs.
PIN stands for Prostatic Intraepithelial
Neoplasia and is considered a premalignant proliferation arising within
the prostate. It is divided into two grades, low and high. There is
no clear relationship between PSA levels and the occurrence of PIN.
However, if a physician is told by a pathologist that there is high
grade PIN in the prostate, it is generally agreed that the patient
is at risk for prostate cancer.